The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 55: 547 - 555 (2011)

Vol 55, Issue 4-5

Special Issue: Angiogenesis in Development & Cancer

The use of the orthotopic model to validate antivascular therapies for cancer

Review | Published: 19 July 2011

Monica Loi1, Daniela Di Paolo1, Pamela Becherini1, Alessia Zorzoli1, Patrizia Perri1, Roberta Carosio1, Michele Cilli2, Domenico Ribatti3, Chiara Brignole1, Gabriella Pagnan1, Mirco Ponzoni1,#,* and Fabio Pastorino1,#,*

1Experimental Therapies Unit, Laboratory of Oncology, G. Gaslini Children’s Hospital, Genoa, 2Animal Research Facility, National Cancer Institute, Genoa and 3Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari, Italy


The orthotopic model reproduces aspects of the tumour microenvironment and emulates a number of important biological features of cancer progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and resistance. Due to its parallels with human cancer, the model can be used to evaluate therapeutic responses to various therapies. This review outlines the importance of using the orthotopic implantation of tumour cells in mice models for evaluating the effectiveness of antivascular therapies.


orthotopic model, vascular disrupting agent, antivascular therapy, cancer

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