The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 64: 167 - 173 (2020)

Vol 64, Issue 1-2-3

Special Issue: Developmental Biology in India - First Part

Indirect flight muscles in Drosophila melanogaster as a tractable model to study muscle development and disease

Published: 23 June 2020

Saroj Jawkar1 and Upendra Nongthomba*,1

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics; Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India


Myogenesis is a complex multifactorial process leading to the formation of the adult muscle. An amalgamation of autonomous processes including myoblast fusion and myofibrillogenesis, as well as non-autonomous processes, such as innervations from neurons and precise connections with attachment sites, are responsible for successful development and function of muscles. In this review, we describe the development of the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) in Drosophila melanogaster, and highlight the use of the IFMs as a model for studying muscle development and disease, based on recent studies on the development and function of IFMs.


Drosophila, indirect flight muscle, disease, muscle, myoblast

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