The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 61: 17 - 27 (2017)

Vol 61, Issue 1-2

Models of amphibian myogenesis - the case of Bombina variegata

Review | Published: 3 March 2017

Leokadia Kiełbówna and Marta Migocka-Patrzałek*

Department of Animal Developmental Biology, Institute of Experimental Biology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland


Several different models of myogenesis describing early stages of amphibian paraxial myotomal myogenesis are known. Myoblasts of Xenopus laevis and Hymenochirus boettgeri change their position from perpendicular to parallel, in relation to axial organs, and differentiate into mononucleate myotubes. In Bombina variegate the myotomal myoblasts change their shape from round to elongate and then differentiate into mononuclear, morphologically mature myotubes. In Pelobates fuscus and Triturus vulgaris, myoblasts fuse into multinuclear myotubes. Mono- and multinucleate myotubes achieve morphological maturity during the differentiation process. During myogenesis of B. variegata, the nuclei of mononucleate, differentiating myotubes contain a tetraploid quantity of DNA (4C DNA). The stable quantity of DNA is confirmed by lack of 3H-thimidine incorporation into myotube nuclei. This outcome is a proof that myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle in the G2 phase. The further development of myotomal myotubes involves myoblasts of mesenchymal origin. These myoblasts fuse with myotubes in X. laevis and B. variegate in the G1 phase. Secondary muscle fibres in amphibian myotomes have only mesenchymal origin. Mesenchymal myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Myofibril development in the differentiating myotube and lack of DNA replication confirm the classical paradigm of myogenesis. Mesenchymal myoblasts are taking part in the myogenesis of musculus rectus abdominis and limb muscles. The mesenchymal cells in the myogenesis process show one model of myogenesis, which is a classical model of myogenesis. The mesenchymal cells probably come from dermatome.


myogenesis, myoblast, myotomal myogenesis

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