The lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor gene families: cloning and comparative expression analysis in Xenopus laevis
Open Access | Developmental Expression Pattern | Published: 2 July 2010
Karine Massé, Jun-ichi Kyuno, Surinder Bhamra and Elizabeth A. Jones*
Department of Biological Sciences, Warwick University, Coventry, U.K.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are endogenous bioactive lipids which mediate a variety of biological cell responses such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Their actions are mediated by binding to the G-protein-coupled endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) receptor subfamily, referred to as S1P1-5 and LPA1-5, and regulate a variety of signalling pathways involved in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions. Their importance during embryogenesis has been demonstrated by the generation of knock-out mice and specific roles have been assigned to these receptors. However, potential functional redundancy and the lethality of some mutants have complicated functional analysis in these models. Here we report the cloning of the S1P and LPA receptors in Xenopus laevis and tropicalis. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the high level of conservation of these receptors between amphibian and other vertebrate species. We have conducted a comparative expression analysis of these receptors during development and in the adult frog, by both RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridisation. In particular, we show that S1P1, 2 and 5 display distinct embryonic specific expression patterns, suggesting potentially different developmental roles for these receptors, and therefore for their ligands, during amphibian embryogenesis.