The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 54: 815 - 825 (2010)

Vol 54, Issue 5

A novel role for Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor Ligand (Gitrl) in early embryonic zebrafish development

Original Article | Published: 1 July 2009

Lynn D. Poulton1, Kathleen F. Nolan*,1, Corina Anastasaki2, Herman Waldmann1 and E. Elizabeth Patton2

1Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, and 2Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, MRC Human Genetics Unit and The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK


Tumour necrosis factor ligand and receptor superfamily (TNFSF and TNFRSF) members have diverse and well-studied functions in the immune system. Additional, non-immunological roles, such as in the morphogenesis of bone, tooth, hair and skin have also been described for some members. GITRL and its receptor GITR are well-described as co-regulators of the mammalian immune response. Here, we describe the identification and cloning of their zebrafish homologues and demonstrate a novel role for the ligand, but not the receptor, in early vertebrate development. The assignment of zebrafish Gitrl and Gitr was supported by homology and phylogenetic analysis. The ligand exhibited an oscillating pattern of mRNA expression during the first 36 hours post fertilization, during which time gitr mRNA was not detected, and morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knock-down of gitrl, but not of gitr, resulted in disruption of early embryogenesis, most clearly revealed during gastrulation, which corresponded to the earliest peak in gitrl mRNA expression (5.25-10 hpf). We found Stat3 signalling to be altered in the gitrl-morphants, suggesting that one possible role for Gitrl during embryogenesis may be modulation of Jak/Stat signalling.


GITRL, GITR, development, zebrafish, Stat3

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