The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 54: 1641 - 1648 (2010)

Vol 54, Issue 11-12

Special Issue: Animal Cloning & Cell Reprogramming

Improvement of mouse cloning using nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor

Review | Published: 17 February 2011

Sayaka Wakayama and Teruhiko Wakayama*

Riken Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan


Nuclear transfer-derived ES (ntES) cell lines can be established from somatic cell nuclei with a relatively high success rate. Although ntES cells have been shown to be equivalent to ES cells, there are ethical objections concerning human cells, such as the use of fresh oocyte donation from young healthy woman. In contrast, the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for cloning poses few ethical problems and is a relatively easy technique compared with nuclear transfer. Therefore, although there are several reports proposing the use of ntES cells as a model of regenerative medicine, the use of these cells in preliminary medical research is waning. However, in theory, 5 to 10 donor cells can establish one ntES cell line and, once established, these cells will propagate indefinitely. These cells can be used to generate cloned animals from ntES cell lines using a second round of NT. Even in infertile and "unclonable" strains of mice, we can generate offspring from somatic cells by combining cloning with ntES technology. Moreover, cloned offspring can be generated potentially even from the nuclei of dead bodies or freeze-dried cells via ntES cells, such as from an extinct frozen animal. Currently, only the ntES technology is available for this purpose, because all other techniques, including iPS cell derivation, require significant numbers of living donor cells. This review describes how to improve the efficiency of cloning, the establishment of clone-derived embryonic stem cells and further applications.


clone, nuclear transfer, reprogramming, ntES cell

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