The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 52: 307 - 314 (2008)

Vol 52, Issue 2-3

Special Issue: Developmental Biology in Poland

Distinct patterns of MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity in slow and fast twitch skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo

Published: 30 November -0001

Malgorzata Zimowska*, Edyta Brzoska, Marta Swierczynska, Wladyslawa Streminska and Jerzy Moraczewski

Department of Cytology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland


Skeletal muscles exhibit great plasticity and an ability to reconstruct in response to injury. However, the repair process is often inefficient and hindered by the development of fibrosis. We explored the possibility that during muscle repair, the different regeneration ability of the fast (extensor digitorum longus; EDL) and slow twitch (Soleus) muscles depends on the differential expression of metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) involved in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Our results show that MMP-9 and MMP-2 are present in the intact muscle and are up-regulated after crush-induced muscle injury. The expression and the activity of these two enzymes depend on the type of muscle and the phase of muscle regeneration. In the regenerating Soleus muscle, elevated levels of MMP-9 occurred during the myolysis and reconstruction phase. In contrast, regenerating EDL muscles exhibited decreased MMP-9 levels during myolysis and increased MMP-2 activity at the reconstruction phase. Moreover, satellite cells (mononuclear myoblasts) derived from Soleus and EDL muscles showed no differences in localization or activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 during proliferation and differentiation in vitro. MMP-9 activity was present during all stages of myoblast differentiation, whereas MMP-2 activity reached its highest level during myoblast fusion. We conclude that MMPs are involved in muscle repair, and that fast and slow twitch muscles exhibit different patterns of MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity.


MMP-9, MMP-2, skeletal muscle regeneration, myogenesis in vitro

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