Int. J. Dev. Biol. 66: 383 - 389 (2022)
The involvement of hormone-sensitive lipase in all-trans retinoic acid induced cleft palate
Abnormally high concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) induce cleft palate, which is accompanied by abnormal migration and proliferation of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme (MEPM) cells. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is involved in many embryonic development processes. The current study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of HSL in cleft palate induced by atRA. To establish a cleft palate model in Kunming mice, pregnant mice were administered atRA (70 mg/kg) by gavage at embryonic Day 10.5 (E10.5). Embryonic palates were obtained through the dissection of pregnant mice at E15.5. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate growth changes in the palatal shelves. The levels of HSL in MEPM cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. RNAi was applied to construct vectors expressing HSL small interference RNAs (siRNAs). The vectors were transfected into MEPM cells. Cell proliferation and migration were evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The palatal shelves in the atRA group had separated at E15.5 without fusing. In MEPM cells, the expression of HSL was reversed after atRA treatment, which caused cleft palate in vivo. In the atRA group, the proliferation of HSL siRNA-transfected cells was remarkably promoted, and the migration rate significantly increased in the HSL siRNA-transfected MEPM cells. These results suggested that HSL may be involved in cleft palate induced by atRA and that atRA enhances HSL levels to inhibit embryonic palate growth.
Cleft palate, atRA, HSL, MEPM