The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 64: 397 - 407 (2020)

Vol 64, Issue 7-8-9

Branching morphogenesis - historical first evidences

Essay | Published: 7 October 2020

Domenico Ribatti*,1 and Diego Guidolin2

1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, Bari and 2Department of Neuroscience, Section of Anatomy, University of Padova, Padova, Italy


Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. It requires the coordinated interplay of multiple types of epithelial cells with the surrounding extracellular matrix. Cell migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix dynamics have different roles in driving budding in different organs. This historical review article summarizes the first founding literature data concerning branching morphogenesis occurring in kidney, lung, vascular system, mammary glands and neurons.


branching, developmental biology, epithelial cell, extracellular matrix, morphogenesis

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