The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 64: 247 - 257 (2020)

Vol 64, Issue 1-2-3

Special Issue: Developmental Biology in India - First Part

Forebrain roof plate morphogenesis and hippocampus development in the chick embryo

Published: 23 June 2020

Sandeep Gupta1, Niveda Udaykumar2 and Jonaki Sen*,2

1University of California Los Angeles, USA, 2Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India


The forebrain roof plate undergoes dramatic morphogenetic changes to invaginate, and this leads to formation of the two cerebral hemispheres. While many genetic factors are known to regulate this process, the mechanism of forebrain roof plate invagination remains unknown. In a recent study we have identified retinoic acid as a signal from the dorsal mesenchyme that regulates the invagination of the roof plate. This has brought into focus the importance of the interaction between the dorsal mesenchyme and the underlying roof plate. One of the structures derived from the dorso-medial forebrain after roof plate invagination is the hippocampus. While the functions of the hippocampus are conserved between birds and mammals, there are distinct structural differences. We have studied hippocampus development in the chick embryo and uncovered several similarities and differences between the process in mammals and birds. This study has also lent support to one of the prevalent models of structural homology between the avian and mammalian hippocampus. In this review, we have underscored the importance of the chick embryo as a model for studying forebrain roof plate morphogenesis and hippocampus development.


forebrain, roof plate, invagination, hippocampus, chick

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