The International Journal of Developmental Biology

Int. J. Dev. Biol. 57: 659 - 665 (2013)

Vol 57, Issue 6-7-8

Special Issue: Plant Transgenesis

Transformation of the mitochondrial genome

Published: 16 October 2013

Véronique Larosa and Claire Remacle*

Genetics of Microorganisms, Department of Life Sciences, Institute of Botany, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium


Although mitochondrial transformation is highly desirable in mammals and plants, it is only possible in two unicellular organisms, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we give an overview of the attempts made to transform mitochondria of mammals and plants and the possible reasons for their failure. This review briefly describes the mitochondrial transformation principles in yeast and describes in more detail the transformation and its applications in Chlamydomonas.


mitochondria, transformation, Chlamydomonas, respiration, mutation

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